Fish atlas

A lot of publications have already been published about our fish, colorfully illustrated atlases and species identification keys. Many of our fish are so well known, that there is no real need to describe them; the knowledge of their appearance also results from the natural interests of people. So it is not necessary to introduce the old ones separately, good friends: the mustachioed carp, predatory pike, the shameful rope, agile eel, quick trout, mysterious catfish and tons of other fish, even this, who do not practice the sport of fishing, let alone sports anglers. This was the main reason, that the descriptions were limited only to the necessary practical remarks, the aim of which is to acquaint the reader with all fish species found in our waters. I always tried to answer the questions - where, when, what, how and what to fish for, including various tidbits about each species. Based on the list of individual species (it should not be considered final and complete) can be said, that they exist in the waters 3 roundworm species and 73 fish species belonging to 18 families.

Issues related to fishing with a fishing rod are regulated by the Fisheries Act and executive regulations, which clarify its details. The discussed legal acts provide for numerous exceptions due to specific ones, justified situations, so you can keep your recipes up to date, avoid, to endure, get relief from bans, orders or conditions in force. These exceptions may be nationwide or only apply to a specific area, and even a specific fishing circuit. They may be admissible on a specific date or until further notice. They can only apply to a specific type or zone of water (e.g.. the land of trout) or all waters within the country, they may include all species of fish or only one specific species, e.g.. grayling or huchen.

All these exceptions, special cases and information necessary for fishing in accordance with the law and the orders of individual fishing clubs are collected in the fishing regulations. It is the duty of every angler, as soon as he has obtained the appropriate permit for sports fishing, is to carefully read the content of the angling regulations. It is beyond the scope to elaborate and quote it in detail and is not the purpose of this page.


This fish is rare in Slovakia, mainly in the Danube basin, in some oxbow lakes and rags. It feels good in heavily overgrown waters, so it can most often be found in various canals and overgrown reservoirs. It has no economic or sporting importance. It belongs to protected animals.


It occurs in the Danube basin, in its oxbow lakes and rags near Bratislava, as well as in free sections of its Moravian and Slovak tributaries. Does not reach a mass greater than 1 kg. It often inhabits the same waters, what an ordinary zander. Its genre features are clear. It has no big teeth, and the entire front part of the gill lid is covered with scales. As you know, ordinary zander do not have such scales.


It does not occur in Czech waters, only in the rivers Morava and Dyje and in the Danube and its tributaries. There are two varieties, one of which is sedentary, and the other is wandering, living in brackish waters and returning to the sea after spawning. It only gains weight 0,3 kg. It is distinguished from the bream by a very long and narrow anal fin, extending from the anal opening to the caudal fin; The odd fins are dark gray, even pairs of light gold; the snout is down, resembles a dull snout. In Poland, sapa occurs only in the Zegrze Reservoir.


It is very rare in the Vltava and the Elbe, more commonly found in the Moravian and Slovak tributaries of the Danube and in the Danube itself. It also has a long and narrow anal fin. It is distinguished from the sapa mainly by the location of the mouth, which has an end position and points obliquely upwards. The average weight of caught specimens is greater than that of a sap, and amounts to approx 0,5 kg.


Rare, occurs in the Danube and its tributaries. It grows up to 15 cm, belongs to the species of animals which are completely protected in Czechoslovakia. In Poland, this fish does not occur at all.


Like the yellow plug, it lives in the waters of the Danube and its lower tributaries; in Moravia it is rare. It reaches a length of approx 30 cm and an average weight 250 g. It is fully protected. Not found in Poland.


It occurs in the Danube, up to its outlet from Moravia and in irrigation canals. Fully protected. It does not occur in Poland.


It is very rare, pointwise, most often in the vicinity of big cities (Prague, Bratislava). He is found in small ones, warm, heavily overgrown reservoirs with a muddy bottom. In Poland it is a ubiquitous fish, it inhabits both still waters (natural lakes, joints, dam reservoirs, clay pits and other industrial workings), and flowing; it is already in the lower part of the trout region and in all other river regions. It does not inhabit poorly oxygenated waters. It often creates very large populations. The stickleback was dragged to our waters by aquarists. It grows up to 5–9 cm. It has no economic importance, also not used live, probably only in case of extreme necessity. He is a predator, causes damage by eating eggs and brooding all species of fish. It is not subject to protective regulations.


Formerly, it penetrated into the upper regions of Odra and Nysa. In recent years, this species has not been found in Czechoslovakia waters. In Poland, it occurs in some lakes of the whitefish and bream type, sometimes in large numbers. It mainly eats zoo-plankton, so he doesn't catch. It is caught on an industrial scale. It is not subject to protection.


It lives in brackish waters and only for spawning is drawn to fresh inland waters. It occurs in the Danube and the lower parts of the Hron, Nitry, Bodrog, Latorica and in Tisie. It is legally protected both in the Czech Republic, and in Poland.


It is not as widespread as bleak, which it seems to replace in the higher watercourses, i.e.. from the upper half of the land of the barbel, but also lives in piedmont trout streams, similar to the minnow. Occasionally it can be found in the Laby basin, it is more numerous in the Morava basin, Dyi, Wagu, Nitry, Ipelu, Hronu and Torysa. The Hellfire is more massive than the bleak, sticks to shallower and faster flowing waters, closer to the bottom. Besides, she looks like her cousin - I'll bleak. It is a good and effective bait.


It mainly lives in the land of bream all over the territory of the Czech Republic, most often in cut off oxbow lakes, muddy, standing waters, drainage canals and ditches, and also in small ones, boggy pools. It usually grows up to 15 —20 cm. It is very resistant to bad environmental conditions, has low oxygen requirements and can survive for months without water. It is very good, an effective and vital lure, especially for catfish, eel, okonia, burbot and pike. It is caught in small crops or as a lure; the probability of being caught with a fishing rod is very small. It prefers waters heavily overgrown with aquatic and marsh vegetation. It is interesting, that it reacts strongly to the upcoming changes in atmospheric pressure and weather; initially it hides in the bottom, and then rises to the surface. In water deprived of oxygen or in the case of a significant oxygen deficiency, it breathes the atmospheric air, using the highly vascularized section of the posterior intestine, into which the bubbles of air taken from above the water surface when swallowed by this fish get.


It inhabits the waters of the Danube basin. Its appearance and biology are similar to that of a roach, however, it reaches larger dimensions and mass. The easiest way to distinguish it from roach is by cutting open the abdominal wall, because he has a black peritoneum.


It occurs at some sites in the Danube and in the upper stretches of rivers in northern Slovakia. It has no economic or sports importance.


It is widespread, but it occurs only at individual sites in flowing waters, and also in the joints, dam reservoirs and natural lakes with hard or even slightly silted bottoms. The regions of its occurrence have not been thoroughly known so far, nevertheless, it can be found both in the waters of the land of trout, and the bream. It usually grows up to 10 cm, it has no economic or sporting importance. Occasionally it is found when fishing for other fish that are used as bait, and also when catching fish from ponds. She is a good bait. When caught by hand, it lifts the gill covers and pricks them with spikes, under his eyes. Who doesn't know about it, he often lets it go.


He lives in alpine lakes, it can also be found singly in high mountain streams. This fish is often called a lake burn. This species creates a lot of local forms characterized by different growth rates, different periods of reproduction and occurring in different locations. Some forms live at considerable depth. Its size varies, the mass may be from 0,2 up to several kilograms. Attempts were made to bring this species to the waters of the Czech Republic and Slovakia. It does not occur in Poland.


Occurs sporadically in selected higher trout waters, with a cool one, sour, and even with less oxygenated water, also on these sections, where there is no possibility of hiding. The species in question has established itself in mountain dam reservoirs, e.g.. in the Jizera Mountains. It comes from North America, from where it was brought together with the rainbow trout. Despite many attempts, it has not been possible to spread it in our waters, as a species of the cleanest water, it is very sensitive to a disease called furunculosis. It crosses the brown trout, but the offspring are sterile. It should only be introduced into such trout waters, in which there are no suitable conditions for brown trout, and also to selected dam reservoirs. The biology of this fish is very similar to that of brown trout. The fishing methods are the same, baits and factors favoring foraging. It can jump high out of the water while towing (just like the rainbow). In watercourses it grows up to 30-35 cm and weighs 0.3-0.5 kg. The catches of spring trout in the Czech Republic and Slovakia are disproportionately small in relation to the size of the stocking. In Poland, spring trout is also a rare inhabitant of waters; the principles of its protection are the same, like a brown trout.


It mainly inhabits still waters; in the water courses it lives mainly there, where it can get through drains or drains to ponds. It is also found in cut off oxbow lakes and on sandbanks. It grows up to 10 cm. There is no economic and sports significance, but her glistening body predisposes her to a great bait, albeit a bit too delicate and not very resistant to manipulation. It is caught with nets for catching a bait or on the most delicate fishing rods with a tiny bait, which may be a bread ball, rolls, earthworm, fly or artificial bow tie on hook no 20. You can catch it with a whisk”. It is a provocative trout bait, curse, perch, asp and eels. The hook engages on both lips, exceptionally for the ridge. It keeps well in cool water. It is easily confused with bleak or bream fry.


It lives in the upper stretches of clean rivers and streams, and even in the smallest watercourses, where other fish will not survive. Its range roughly coincides with the acreage of trout waters. We can also meet it in ponds and some mountain dam reservoirs immediately after filling them; later disappears quickly. It requires flowing waters, a hard bottom alternating with a slightly silted bottom, especially hiding places under stones or under the roots of coastal trees and shrubs. It grows up more or less to 10 cm. It is caught with nets approved for use in catching live fish and with a fishing rod with miniature lures (in trout waters they must be plant baits - e.g.. a ball of bread); it could also be the smallest artificial fly. He lives a common life; You can often catch many individuals on one site; there is a possibility of baiting. They also manage to catch it in a bottle. It is delicious, universal bait, while its population in our waters is declining rapidly. The reason for this is increasing water pollution, regulation and drainage, increasing the fish stock of trout waters, increasing catches of minks for bait. For the same reasons, the stream minnow has been fully protected in Poland in recent years, so it is not allowed to fish at all.


Its range is limited to the basins of some larger free flowing rivers and their cut off oxbow lakes. Requires a hard bottom with numerous hiding places. It is not an indigenous species in our waters. It was brought from America at the end of the last century, then fish were stocked with it in southern Bohemia in ponds, from where it spread mainly in the basin of the Elbe and Vltava, where at the same time the sums began to disappear. Despite the fact that in its homeland it gains quite considerable size and has both economic activities there, and sporting importance, in our conditions it becomes dwarfed and becomes an undesirable fish, and even a weed. Because it requires clean water, it hasn't spread too widely, and even in some areas it is disappearing. It reaches a weight of 0.15-0.25 kg. Like most carp fish, it takes on animal bait, although he does not despise plants. The meat is tasty, especially after smoking or oiled as a substitute for sardines.